FAQS

What is Alkaline Antioxidant water?
Hydrogen water

Hydrogen water PDF    

Hydrogen water or hydrogen-rich water (also called hydrogen-enriched water) simply means normal water (H2O) that contains dissolved Hydrogen Gas (H2). For example, there are carbonated waters or beverages (soda pop), which contain dissolved carbon dioxide gas (CO2), or oxygen water, which contains dissolved oxygen gas (O2). Similarly, you can have water that contains dissolved hydrogen gas. Think of it this way: you can make hydrogen water by taking a tank of hydrogen gas (just like tanks of helium used to fill balloons or tanks of oxygen gas used in hospitals), and bubbling it into a glass of water. There are also many other methods to make hydrogen water, but this may help you better understand what hydrogen water is. It is simply water that contains dissolvedhydrogen gas.

Strong Alkaline Water

Functional Waters

Some commercial water ionizers allow you to add sodium chloride (NaCl) to the source water, which increases the conductivity of the water resulting in functional waters called strong acidic water (produced at the anode) and strong alkaline water (produced at the cathode)

Properties Of Strong Alkaline Water

Electrolyzed alkaline water is produced via electrolysis of a NaCl solution at the cathode side. The resultant product is a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with a pH of 11-13.8 and a negative ORP of -750 to -900 mV due to the dissolved hydrogen gas. It may also contain small amounts of platinum-Nano particles as the NaCl increases the propensity of degrading the electrode plates.

Uses And Benefits

This cathodic water is considered a functional water because it is used for cleansing, rinsing, disinfecting, lipid extraction, etc. It can readily saponify oils making it a useful washing agent for greasy or oily areas. This also gives it the ability to reduce the pesticides on produce by soaking the vegetables in this water for 10-30 minutes.

It is important to note that using this water on produce generally alters the color of the water. Some have incorrectly claimed that the color is all the pesticides. The fact is that the color is due to the organic pigments of the food itself—because of the high pH of the water (see pictures/description below). Indeed, the same color change occurs even with pesticide free produce.

The above pictures clearly illustrate this point. In both pictures, the left cup is bottled water at an initial pH of 6.2 where tomatoes were soaked for the same amount of time as another batch of tomatoes, which soaked in the strong alkaline water (10 min). After soaking, the tomatoes were removed and the pH of the bottled water was increased to 11.2 by adding a simple alkaline chemical (i.e. ammonia). It is seen that the color is about the same, which indicates that the reason for the color change is simply because like with the tea demo, the color pigments act as “natural” pH indicators. This is further underscored by the same picture on the right, but where the pH of the strong alkaline water was decreased by adding acid (i.e. white vinegar) to a pH of 6.2. It is seen that the water went colorless because of the natural pH indictor properties of the tomato skin.

Mixing With Oil

Some have claimed that the reason this water can mix with oil is because it has a lower surface tension, or micro clustering of the water molecules. However, both of these ideas are false and are pseudoscientific. Actually, the surface tension increases as pH and/or NaCl concentration increases and micro clustering is an abandoned myth with no credible scientific backing.

Others have termed that the water mixing with the oil as emulsification; however, the water lacks a surfactant thus making this illogical. The mixing is that of saponification, which a common process of making soap is. The hydroxides hydrolyze the triglycerides to form carboxylates. This newly formed soap now has surfactant activity, which acts to emulsify the remaining oil.

It is observed that the ability of this water to saponify fats increases when stored for a day. A possible explanation for this is that as the water sits calcium salts (e.g. carbonates) form and drop out of the solution. This is important because calcium blocks micelle formation, which is important for final saponification/emulsification of the oil.

Because this water can mix with oil, another false claim has been perpetuated, which is that drinking this water or the mildly alkaline water can remove excess fat and cholesterol from inside of the body. This is absolutely false and is yet another reason why many ridicule the concept of ionized water. It is the high alkaline pH (?11.5) that is responsible for the mixing ability. The stomach acid would neutralize the alkaline water; furthermore, a blood pH high enough to mix with fats would be instantly fatal.

Strong Acidic Water

Functional Waters

Some commercial water ionizers allow you to add sodium chloride (NaCl) to the source water, which increases the conductivity of the water, resulting in functional waters calledstrong alkaline water (produced at the cathode) and strong acidic water (produced at the anode).

Strong Acidic Water

Strong acidic water, known as electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) in the literature, is produced via electrolysis of a NaCl solution at the anode side. The resultant product is a solution of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with a pH less than 2.7 and a positive ORP +1000 mV to +1600 mV. This anodic water contains oxidative characteristics due to a variety of chemical species (HOCl, O2–, O2, etc.) The high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of EOW is an indicator of its bactericidal effects. Hypochlorous acid is the primary agent in this water but the other free radical species are also important to its powerful germicidal activity. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why EOW is an effective anti-microbial, even with only 20 ppm to 60 ppm of available chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), as opposed to conventional anti-microbial which may contain chlorine at over 200 ppm. EOW is used for sterilization disinfection and sanitization. However, unlike other cleaners it is not a surfactant. Hypochlorous acid is also the main ingredient in bleach although the pH of bleach is about 12, which favors the hypochlorite species.

Differences In Ph

Although EOW is generally recognized as having an acidic pH (less than 2.7), this is not always the case nor does it need to be. pH is not as important as is the concentration of HOCl and other oxidizing species. There are many devices and studies which clearly demonstrate that neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water is just as effective. It may also be preferred as it stores longer.

Eow History And Medical Approval

EOW was developed in Japan in the late 1980’s as disinfectant water. In 1996, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare approved EOW-producing machines as medical devices for “hand-washing upon surgery”. The following year they were approved for “antiseptic washing and disinfection of endoscopes” However, its actual use in the medical field is not as well-known.

Effectiveness And Benefits

EOW is effective in killing pathogens, bacteria, viruses, spores and other microorganisms. Interestingly, it is effective even at relatively low HOCl concentrations.EOW is also effective at reducing pesticides on vegetables. It also doesn’t appear to exert the same irritation as HOCl to skin and other mucous membranes.

Popularity

This has made EOW an attractive concept in the food industry, dental industry, and other industries in need of sterilizing capabilities. Electrolysis units for use on large scale are known as bleach generators. The use of these devices eliminates the need to ship and store toxic chlorine gas, as well as the weight penalty of shipping hypochlorous (bleach) solutions.

Epa Registration

Companies have approached the EPA seeking registration, but this is generally difficult because of the design limitations of the machines. In order to receive certification the machines must be able to reliably produce the solutions in a consistent, repeatable manner, which is affected by source water, flow rate, scale build-up, etc.

Caution Regarding Use

If you choose to use EOW in place of conventional chemicals, you must first verify that the machine can produce water that would meet EPA standards, such as a certain HOCl concentration. Some machines have a simple “salt port” or a “saline solution” that is used to generate the HOCl. This can be an effective method; however, its effectiveness can drastically vary from effective to ineffective depending on a number of factors like flow rate, source water, cleanliness of the electrodes, calcium sulfite content in the filter, and even changes in relative elevations of the acid and alkaline hoses. These variables underscore the importance of verifying that the specific procedure used is adequate to produce effective EOW. One cannot simply assume that the EOW produced from these machines will always be effective, as this may result in negative health effects. Moreover, the lower the pH the stronger the chlorine content, but the less effective the killing power. Thus one cannot assume that a strong “chlorine” smell is indicative of an effective EOW solution.

Price

The price for effective EOW-producing units ranges from $200.00 to about $6,000.00. The important thing is to verify that the machines can meet the EPA requirements as mentioned above, and that you have verification that your procedure on your source water is an effective method.

Strong Alkaline Water

Does more Hydrogen equal more benefits?

Maybe, maybe not…. there is obviously a minimum required amount needed to offer any health benefits, which may vary from person to person. Importantly, it appears that you cannot get too much hydrogen, as it doesn’t build up in your system.—you just exhale it out. In many cases there is a clear dose-dependent effect, meaning the more hydrogen the better or greater the effect. There are also many anecdotal reports that suggest that consuming more hydrogen may offer even more benefits. But more research needs to be done in all area.

Doesn’t Water already have Hydrogen in it because water is H2O?

The water molecule has two hydrogen atoms, chemically bound to the oxygen atom. This is different from the hydrogen gas molecule (H2), which is just two hydrogen atoms bound only to each other. Here’s an example: we need oxygen (O2) to live, so why can’t we just get our oxygen from drinking water, H2O? It’s because the oxygen is chemically tied up in the water molecule. We need available oxygen gas, (O2) that is not bound to other atoms or molecules. In the same way, in order for the dissolved hydrogen gas (H2) to benefit us, it must be in an unbound form, and therefore available for therapeutic benefit. This is why water is not explosive or doesn’t burn. Although, it contains hydrogen, which is flammable, and oxygen, which fire needs to burn, the hydrogen and oxygen are bonded together to form water (H2O). Thus, water is not flammable-in fact, H2O is what we use to extinguish fires. Furthermore, virtually everything has hydrogen atoms in it, but those hydrogen atoms are chemically tied up with other things. For example, a water molecule has two hydrogen atoms that are chemically tied up with the oxygen. Or, a sugar molecule like glucose contains 12 hydrogen’s, but those hydrogen’s are all bound to other carbon and oxygen atoms. In hydrogen water, the hydrogen that is shown to be therapeutic is the available dissolved hydrogen in its diatomic form, called molecular Hydrogen.

How does the blood maintain an Alkaline Ph?

The three main systems the body uses to maintain normal blood pH levels are:

  • Buffering components (e.g. proteins, phosphates, etc.)
  • Respiratory system (removal of CO2)
  • Renal system (excretion or reabsorption of bicarbonate HCO3)

When acid is introduced into or produced by the body, it is quickly neutralized by the blood’s buffering components. The most important buffer is the bicarbonate/carbonic acid mechanism. Carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in the blood to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which then forms bicarbonate (HCO3–, alkaline buffer) and the hydrogen ion (H+). This is according to the equation CO2 + H2O –> H2CO3 –> HCO3– + H+. This makes things very simple, because if the blood pH is too low (too many H+ ions), then we simply exhale out more CO2 via the lungs. The removal of CO2 causes the equation above to shift to the left, reducing the amount of H+ ions, which increases the blood pH. This is why hyperventilation (rapid breathing) can result in alkalosis (high blood pH) due to the excess removal of CO2. Alternatively, holding your breath can result in a lower pH because more CO2 is dissolving in the blood, which shifts the equation to the right leading to more H+ ions. CO2 is simply a normal byproduct of metabolism. In fact, virtually all the food we eat is broken down to CO2. Importantly, the primary stimulus for breathing is not the need for oxygen, but the need to remove CO2 so that the H+ ion concentration doesn’t increase and lower blood pH. Generally, under relaxed conditions, there is enough oxygen in one breath of air to sustain the body for about 1 minute, yet we breathe around 12 times per minute to remove the CO2. Healthy people only use about 5% of the oxygen inhaled per breath. People with lung diseases often require additional oxygen because they are unable to inhale enough. The inability to inhale and exhale also can lead to changes in blood pH because of the inability to remove CO2, possibly resulting in respiratory acidosis.

How much Hydrogen water should i drink to get benefits?

This is the same question scientists are asking and is still under investigation. However, animal and human studies recommend about 0.5 to 1.6 mg or more H2 per day, and these doses typically show significant benefits. So, if your water has concentration of 1 mg/L (equivalent to 1 ppm, parts per million), then two liters will give you 2 mg of H2. although the effective concentration for some people and some diseases may be lower and/or higher.

Alkaline water can neutralize excess Acidic levels in the body, is this true?

Alkaline water is not a buffer and has low Alkalinity. As such, it cannot neutralize very much acid. Many people have seen that just a small amount of soda can easily lower the pH of a gallon of alkaline water. To help put this into perspective, consider that 1 tsp of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) can neutralize the same amount of acid as 10,000 liters of alkaline water at a pH of 10. This is a primary reason why medical professionals have been skeptical about “Alkaline Ionized water”. It simply wasn’t known that the benefit of this water is attributed to the dissolved hydrogen gas until around 2007.

A sick person has an acidic blood pH (1 to 6 on a pH), is this true?

Healthy blood pH varies between 7.35 to 7.45. Blood pH is tightly regulated. In physiology, if someone has a blood pH of 7.1 they are said to have acidosis even though 7.1 is actually alkaline according to the pH scale. Very rarely do people ever get truly acidic blood (pH < 7.0). If the blood pH drops below 7, the body will not survive very long. Therefore, virtually every sick person actually has an alkaline blood pH even though some may have acidosis. Similarly, some diseases can actually cause alkalosis (elevated blood pH). It is the disease that causes the changes in blood pH, as opposed to the changes in blood pH causing the disease. Of course, a low blood pH can seriously damage the body and needs to be quickly corrected.

Is Hydrogen rich water, Acidic in nature?

Great question! If the water is rich in positive hydrogen ions (H+), then yes, it is acidic. But in this case, we’re talking about neutral hydrogen gas (H2), which is two hydrogen atoms tied together. It can be confusing to hear ‘hydrogen water’ because we usually think of hydrogen (meaning the hydrogen ion, H+) as acidic, and that is basically the definition of pH. The p stands for potential or power, meaning a mathematical exponent (in this case a logarithmic function), and the H stands for the hydrogen ion, which is just a proton and no electron. So pH literally means the logarithmic concentration of the hydrogen ion. But when we say ‘hydrogen water’ we are referring to dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen, which is a neutral gas that is dissolved in the water.

Does adding Hydrogen to water make it Hydrogen Peroxide?

Water has the chemical formula H2O, and hydrogen peroxide has the chemical formula H2O2, which by comparison contains extra oxygen, not hydrogen. So it does not, indeed it cannot, form Hydrogen Peroxide. The fact is, hydrogen gas does not bond to or react with the water molecules rather it just dissolves in water. It does not create some novel molecule like H4O, which would be chemically impossible to form. Therefore, hydrogen water and hydrogen peroxide are completely different.

Is Hydrogen Safe?

Yes. Hydrogen gas has been shown to be very safe at concentrations hundreds of times higher than what is being used for therapy. Here are a few examples: Hydrogen’s safety was first shown in the late 1800s, where hydrogen gas was used to locate gunshot wounds in the intestines. The reports showed that there were never any toxic effects or irritation to even the most sensitive tissues. Another good example of its safety is that hydrogen gas has been used in deep sea diving since 1943 (at very high concentrations) to prevent decompression sickness. Studies have shown no toxic effects from hydrogen when at very high levels and pressures of 98.87% H2 and 1.26% O2 at 19.1 atm. Furthermore, hydrogen gas is natural to the body because after a fiber-rich meal, our gut bacteria can produce liters of hydrogen on a daily basis (which is yet another benefit from eating fruits and vegetables). In short, hydrogen gas is very natural to our bodies, not like a foreign or alien substance that can only be synthesized in a chemistry lab.

Isn`t Hydrogen gas explosive?

Yes, it is VERY explosive. Hydrogen is the most energy-dense molecule by mass. But, when the gas is dissolved in water it is not explosive at all, just like if you mixed gunpowder in water it wouldn’t be explosive either. Even when it is in the air, it is only flammable above a 4.6% concentration by volume, which is not a concern when talking about hydrogen-rich water.

OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL ORP BASICS*
One of the characteristics of water containing dissolved molecular hydrogen (such asionized water) is that it exhibits a negative oxidation-reduction potential (O.R.P.).Chemical reactions occurring in an aqueous solution are called redox reactions. The ORP measures the capacity of a solution to either release or accept electrons from chemical reactions. The ORP value, much like pH, is important for determining water quality and for water treatment processes. Just as pH determines the water’s relative state in receiving or gaining protons (i.e. hydrogen ions, H+), ORP indicates the water’s relative state to receive or gain electrons. A solution with a higher (more positive) ORP has the potential to oxidize a solution with a lower ORP. For example, +700 mV is an antioxidant to +900 mV, which is an antioxidant to +1100 mV.

OXIDATION & REDUCTION

Oxidation occurs when electrons are removed, such as when a free radical steals an electron from a cell. The cell is oxidized (an increase in its oxidation state), whereas, the free radical is reduced.

Therefore reduction means a receiving or gaining of electrons (decrease in its oxidation state), such as when an antioxidantdonates an electron to a free radical. The free radical is reduced and the antioxidant is oxidized. The antioxidant is said to be the “reducing agent”; it reduces the free radical. Whereas the free radical is called the “oxidizing agent”; it oxidizes the antioxidant.

KEEPING IT STRAIGHT

One way to keep this straight is by using the common mnemonic, OILRIG. Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain. (of electrons). The figure to the left is also very descriptive and informative of this process. Remember that you can’t have an oxidation reaction without a corresponding reduction reaction. The converse is also true.

POTENTIAL

The potential is a characteristic of the chemical species to undergo an oxidation-reduction reaction. It is not the actual reaction. Rather, it is stored energy that has the ability to do work and is measured in volts; thus, the greater the voltage potential, the greater the ability and propensity to undergo a redox reaction.

The higher the specie’s positive potential, (i.e. free radical) the greater affinity it has for electrons, and thus a higher tendency to oxidize (steal electrons) from another species, like a cell membrane. Conversely the lower the specie’s redox potential (i.e. antioxidants) the lower its affinity for electrons, and thus a higher tendency to donate its electrons and be a reducing agent (neutralize a free radical).

TWO IMPORTANT POINTS

It is important to note that just because something has a high ORP (negative or positive) does not mean a reaction will take place. Just like the depiction with the ball at the top of the hill, it has the “potential” to go down the hill, but someone still needs to give it the initial “push” (this is called activation energy, Ea)). If the required activation energy is too high, the reaction may never occur. In fact, although we hear that diamonds last forever, they actually have a favorable potential to spontaneously convert to graphite (Gibbs free energy = -2.90 kJ/mol.); but, the Ea is so high that the reaction doesn’t readily occur.

It is also important to note that just because something has a negative ORP doesn’t mean that it has any physiological antioxidant value. It is the chemical species responsible for producing the ORP value that determines whether or not it can act as a biological antioxidant. For example, a negative ORP can be produced by the addition of vitamin C, molecular hydrogen or aluminum metal to water, but only vitamin C and molecular hydrogen have physiological benefits even though small amounts of aluminum (Al) in different oxidation states (i.e. Al+ to Al3+) can give an ORP of over -700 mV. In fact, the metal can actually act as an oxidant, causing the very thing you’re trying to prevent. This is important to keep in mind with many commercial products now touting the benefits of –ORP water. The question must be “what is the chemical species responsible for producing the negative ORP, and does that have physiological value?”

Summary

The ORP value only tells you if an oxidation-reduction reaction CAN happen. It does not tell you how fast or even if it will happen. It also does not tell you if it has physiological and biological antioxidant value if consumed internally. Make sure you know what chemical species is responsible for producing the negative ORP value.

ORP IMPORTANCE

HIGH POSITIVE ORP = DISINFECTING POWER

A high positive ORP is desired in sewage treatment, swimming pools and spas, because the higher the ORP, the more oxidation will occur, thus killing the bacteria and unwanted pathogens, by stealing electrons from the bacteria’s DNA, cell membranes and proteins.Chlorine is added to water because it has a high ORP and thus is an effective disinfectant. It is the high ORP of electrolyzed oxidizing water that makes it an effective bactericidal.Oxygen also has a high ORP and can damage DNA and proteins. Conversely molecular hydrogen exhibits a very low ORP and is thus a reducing agent or antioxidant.

ORP OF DRINKING WATER: EFFECTS ON HEALTH

Like pools and spas, drinking water quality is also determined by national standards. However, ORP is a non-standardized indicator. Chlorine is normally added to drinking water because it has a high positive ORP and will therefore oxidize and destroy the bacteria that are harmful to humans. However, the ORP of the internal environment of a healthy person is always on the reductive side, with some redox couples below -350 mV. Therefore, with a healthy viewpoint in mind, it would make sense that the optimal drinking water is one with a negative ORP. Drinking water with a positive ORP is reduced to a reductive ORP at the expense of consuming the electrical energy from cell membranes.Normal tap water, bottled water, rain water, and so forth, have a positive ORP generally between 200-400 mV, and even as high as 500-600 mV depending on location. Indeed, tap water has been shown to be a weak pro-oxidant. It was demonstrated in one study that where mineral water shifted intracellular redox state to a 6-10% higher oxidized state, tap water containing HOCl (from addition of chlorine) shifted the intracellular redox state to a 25% higher oxidized state in rat skeletal muscle cells.

ORP OF DRINKING WATER: RECOMMENDATION

A low ORP is also seen with certain human biological fluids. The oral fluid of a healthy human and mother’s milk both have negative ORP -70 mV, as does freshly made fruit and vegetable juice such as carrot juice with an ORP of -50 mV. Okouchi and colleagues measured the ORP of an assortment of physiological samples of healthy individuals including: skin, blood plasma, amniotic fluid, saliva and urine. They found that all of these had reductive characteristics.

They also measured a variety of fresh foodstuffs and an assortment of fruits and vegetables and noted that they all exhibited reductive characteristics. The researchers also noted that an ORP measurement could suggest the degree of freshness by comparing the value to its known value when fresh.

It was also observed that many commercial beverages and tap water all exhibited oxidative characteristics. In lieu of these observations, the authors proposed a functional type of water having reductive characteristics that can be classified as vital water because it would be analogous to physiological and biological fluids, as well as the many foodstuffs that are required for growth and development. In conclusion, they recommend that water should have reductive characteristics, which is “less stimulating to the human body”.

However, as mentioned before, more important than the ORP value is the chemical species responsible for that ORP value. Just because water has a low or negative ORP, does not mean that it has any physiological or biological antioxidant value if consumed internally. Indeed, something with a negative ORP could actually be toxic, and something with a positive ORP may actually be therapeutic.

Since Hydrogen gas doesn’t dissolve very well in water, how can it be beneficial?

It is true that hydrogen is not very water soluble as it is a neutral, non-polar molecule with a solubility of 1.6 mg/L, which is relatively low. But when we consider that molecular hydrogen is the lightest molecule in the universe, we really need to compare the number of molecules as opposed to the number of grams. For example, if a single molecule weighed 2 mg (which is impossible, but used as an example), then having just one of those molecules in a liter of water would give you 2 mg/L, but there would only be one molecule. For reference, vitamin C (176.2 g/mole) weighs 88 times more than hydrogen gas (2 g/mole). Therefore, hydrogen water at a concentration of 1.6 mg/L would have more “therapeutic” molecules than 100 mg of vitamin C, as there are more total molecules in 1.6 mg of hydrogen compared 100 mg of vitamin C. That is, 0.8 mmoles of H2 vs. about 0.6 mmoles of vitamin C. But more importantly, hundreds of scientific studies clearly show that these concentration of hydrogen are effective.

Won’t any dissolved Hydrogen gas escape out of water?

Yes, it does immediately start coming out of the water, but it doesn’t just vanish immediately. Depending on the surface area, agitation, etc., the hydrogen gas can stay in the water for a few hours or longer before it drops below a therapeutic level. This is much like carbonated water or soda that contains carbon dioxide gas (CO2), but because it does leave, it is best to drink the water promptly before it goes ‘flat’.

Water Importance (Molecule Of Life)

Water Importance

Water is the universal solvent it can exist as a solid, liquid or gas. It is necessary for the functions of life and for life to function. Water is the life-giving fluid that is always at the heart of creation. Its presence supports life, and its absence brings death. Water in liquid state is the principle criteria for planetary habitability. The importance of water is well known. Obviously life would not exist without it. Indeed, water is virtually the most important nutrient for our health. You can go without food for about a month; however, going only three days without water can be fatal. It is used for maintaining body temperature, absorbing nutrients, eliminating wastes, and many cellular processes including enzyme catalysis.The average adult is 55% to 75% water by weight; the variation is due to gender, height, lean body and shape. Someone with a 55% totally body water can be more hydrated than someone with a 65% total body water because it is relative to each individual based on their body type. Optimal body hydration is important for optimal cell hydration and cell function (i.e. communication, signaling, cell metabolism, gene expression, etc.). About 2/3 of the water in the body is intracellular and about 1/3 is extracellular.

How Important Is Hydration?

It makes sense that maintaining optimal hydration is requisite for overall health and longevity. In fact, the 2003 heat wave in Europe led to an excess of 50,000 deaths. The majority of these deaths have been attributed primarily to dehydration. Indeed, dehydration is a primary cause for the hospitalization of the elderly and in many patients it often results in fatalities. Dehydration is also linked to infection and if overlooked, mortality may be greater than 50%. Did you know that losing only 1%-2% of your bodyweight in water significantly impairs both athletic and cognitive performance?

Water: Liquid Or Heavy Gas?

Water has a mass of only 18 grams/mole, which is really light, but yet is a liquid not a gas. Take for example the element Radon. It is one of the noble gases, yet its molar mass is 222 grams/mole. It weighs over 12 times more, yet remains a gas while water weighing significantly less is a liquid at room temperature. This is because of the hydrogen bonding.

Because the oxygen atom has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge, two neighboring water molecules are attracted together. This is an electromagnetic attractive interaction between polar molecules. Each water molecule can hydrogen bond with up to four other water molecules as seen in the diagram. These bonds are weak and rearrange to bond with other water molecules on the femto time scale (i.e. 10-15 seconds). This makes formation of stable water clusters in bulk water impossible.

The hydrogen bonding of water molecules is also responsible for ionizing the water to form a hydroxide (OH-) and a hydronium ion (H3O+). 2H2O ? H3O+ + OH–. This makes water amphoteric; it can be an acid or a base.As seen in the below schematic, a water molecule can pull hydrogen off another water molecule, which results in the two ionic species.

This is what is responsible for the pH* of the water. pH means the negative logarithmic concentration of the H3O+ species.

Water: Oxygen + Hydrogen = Life

Interestingly, water, which is essential to life, is formed by the combination of oxygen (a powerful oxidizer and essential for life) and hydrogen (a powerful reducer and essential to life). It tends to make sense that molecular hydrogen has therapeutic potential.

When were Hydrogens therapeutic benefits first discovered?
The earliest account of hydrogen gas having medicinal properties was in 1798, for things like inflammation. But, it didn’t become a popular topic among scientists until 2007, when an article about the benefits of hydrogen was published in the prestigious journal of Nature Medicine by Dr. Othas group.